Equipment needed for fly fishing

“How To Attach Thread To The Hook”

When a sportsman becomes really interested in fly fishing, he/she will inevitably decide to tie their own flies. As insects can differ in size, shape, and color from one region to another, its difficult and expensive to either hunt down or commission specialized fly-hooks. Tying one’s own flies allows the sportsman to perfectly mimic the local insects that fish prefer to feed on. This guide will give a run through of how to start making one’s own flies by attaching thread to hook. From that point on, how the flies are made are up to the imagination and ingenuity of the sportsman.

The Right Equipment

Step 1:

Fly Tying Vise- A fly tying vise is an absolute must when tying one’s own flies. Remember that all of the components of the fly are very small and diverse. It would be incredibly frustrating to try to do this all by hand. Some of the more complex flies may take many hours of work over a period of days to complete. A vise allows you to walk away from your work and be sure you’ll find it in the same condition you left it. There are many such vises on the market that range in price from ten dollars to nearly a thousand. Price does not exactly indicate quality though. What you need to remember is that the purpose of a vise is to hold the fly immobile. It should not shift or jiggle at all. If you can find a vise that does this, you’re set.

Step 2:

Bobbin- A fly tying bobbin is simply a device to help control the spool of fly tying thread as it is wound around a fly. The only thing you need look for here is a tube at the end of the bobbin which does not damage, crimp, or fray the thread as it unspools. If such a thing happens the thread may break and you would have to start tying the fly all over again. For this reason many bobbins come with a flared tube, while others may come with ceramic tubes or inserts that cause the threads less friction.

Step 3:

Hackle Pliers- hackle pliers are used to firmly grasp and manipulate small pieces used to make a fly. Typically they would be bits of feather and down called “hackle” that come from game birds. Its hackle that usually makes up the body of the fly and gives it the illusion of being a real fly. They also in a non-slip type of hackle plier that has rubber grips at the end to avoid crushing the hackle and hold it more securely.

Step 4:

Whip Finisher- A whip finisher is a tool employed by lots of tiers to finish a fly with a smooth knot. A whip finish is applied in order to keep the materials from unwinding after the thread is cut. There are three types of whip finishers available on the market today, the Simple, the Thompson and the Matarelli. They all create a nice finish on a fly, but accomplish it in different ways.

Step 5:

Bodkin- A bodkin is simply a needle with a handle. Bodkins are a very general tool in fly tying. They are often used to untrap hackle fibers, add head cement to the knot ending a fly’s tying, punch holes into foam popper bodies, etc.

Attaching The Thread To The Hook

Step 1:

Take the hook and clamp it securely in the vice.

Step 2:

Use the bobbin to lay down some thread parallel to the shaft of the hook, hold the thread along the shank of the hook.

Step 3:

Wind the bobbin around the thread, trapping it beneath the windings. Take as many wraps as necessary until the thread is securely attached to the hook. There, your thread is attached and the fly is ready to be decorated.

Learning the Art of Negotiating the Best Airfares

As many of you know buying airline tickets is an art as you will need to have many details known for a trip to another country before you can make your airline reservations. These airline reservations will allow you to fly to the country of your choice and on the date that you have chosen. There is one other item that you may have to see about and that is getting the best airfares that you are able to.

These different airfares can be found when you visit your travel agent or the airline ticket reservation desk itself. In some cases you will be able to see what the best airfares for various airlines are when you look on the internet. These various airfares will be based on many items.

In some cases the airfares are dependent on the various sectors that the various airlines are flying to. Promotions and various taxes can also play their part in deciding on the different airfares. You can look at each of these airline fares and see if you are willing to pay for these types of airfares. Unless you are in a hurry you will be able to shop around for the best airfares that you want.

This type of hunting should be taken carefully as some airfares have hidden costs that you won’t realize until you have paid for the airfares. As you look through the many web sites for good airfares that will give you a comfortable trip with you can also find out if any types of promotional offers are being given as well.

In some cases the promotional offers that are linked to the best airfares from various airlines. With these promotional offers and the best airfares that are low in price but not in value you can go on fabulous holiday destinations.

There will be time when you can visit countries that you have been dreaming of like Egypt or Australia. As these linked promotional airfares that will take you to different countries for great holidays, may be for a short period of time you should see about taking these types of tickets only if you have the time to go on these holidays.

Even if you can’t find any promotional benefits with the various airlines, looking for the best airfares can help when you are on a limited budget. For this reason you may want to book your flights when you have found an airline that will take you to your destination and you have found a good deal for your airline tickets.

Cheap Flights: Get Them Easily Online

Travelling to far off countries is possible only through air flights. Airlines can be domestic and international. Domestic airlines let you fly from one city to other within the boundaries of the country. International air flights allow you to travel long distances outside a country. So you can go from one part of the world to other in a few hours with international air flights.

The airline market is becoming highly competitive. These international air flights come with ample of discount options. The international air flights are really expensive so make use of the discount offers. But you need to plan your trip in advance in order to get the best discounts. The earlier you plan your trip and book your tickets, the more economical deal you get. You can also get free holiday packages online.

Travelling on flights has become common these days. Some people travel as they need some time for themselves from their busy schedule. Others travel because of business needs. So everyone have their own different reasons for travelling but one thing common is their wish to save as much as possible by availing cheap flight tickets. Who doesn’t want to make their trip economical?

Your vacation can be exciting if you get a cheap flight without standing in long queues. The numerous travel websites make your dreams come true by offering discounts or deals. After all, you want to save your hard earned money. He might me a person who has been taking care of your travel needs for years but if there is a better deal available in the market why would you deprive yourself from its benefit.

From the comfort of your home, you can easily book your air tickets and get very good discounts. You can choose from an extensive range of last minute travel deals. Select the one that suits your budget and make your trip cost-effective.

If there were no cheap flights, many would not have got an opportunity to visit foreign countries. The steps through which you can get cheap flight airline tickets are:

Book your tickets in advance. If you book your tickets well in advance, you would get maximum savings.

Travelling during off peak times is always cheaper.

Travel agents can help you get great deals.

Research on the internet to get fantastic deals. Great package deals are available with various flight websites.

So make prompt bookings as if you are late in making decisions, it may result in expiry of discount offer.

Its best to book flights as early as you can. When flights get booked, there are limited seats available which causes prices to rise. Also, booking early gives you better choice of seating. Surf multiple web sites and search for websites offering cheap flights. Travel agencies book the international airfares for you. You should also ask them for additional savings.

These days, it has become easy to get a cheap flight to anywhere in the world. Simply search for the websites offering discounted rates for virtually anywhere you wish to travel. If you have a low budget, you can get ample of options to book a trip. So spend your energy and time in exploring your choices and make the best of your hard earned money.

At times, finding cheap flights tickets can be a challenge. When you call to book your ticket, there are very less chances to get a discount. So it is wise to go online to book your tickets unless you have an emergency. Also compare prices from travel websites before you book your trip as many a times you’ll find another travel site offering a bit cheap fare.

Save your time and money by shopping around. Simply enter your flight details and you will find the best deal. Search for online travel agents and grab the deal that suits you. Get the best prices by researching. Compare the offerings of different airlines and sometimes you may get also additional savings.

Casting with a weighted fly

Casting with weighted flies can be hazardous to your health. Often called a “chuck and duck” method, it takes a different set of skills from dry fly fishing.

The first tip to keep in mind when casting weighted flies is to cast with an “open loop”. This means slowing down the casting stroke and having more patience in your casting.

Also, when casting in windy conditions, care must be taken to control the flight of the weighted fly. A weighted fly can cause serious injury by becoming embedded in your scalp or body. Always wear protective eye-wear when casting to protect your eyes.

You will need to modify your casting considerably when casting weighted flies. Try to minimize your false casting. A good bet is to just “load” the rod and “shoot” the fly, keeping to a minimum of false casting. You will find it more difficult to use a roll cast. It can be done, but will require perfect technique and more energy to accomplish.

For short range casting on moving water, you can load the rod by letting your fly drift past you and letting the downstream current load the rod. You can flip the line upstream against the downstream force that is being exerted on the rod. This will use the stored energy in the rod to propel the fly upstream with no false casting.

For longer casts, you will have to false cast, but never false cast more than necessary to load the rod for the appropriate distance. You can use the “double haul” technique to increase line speed and “shoot” the line to gain distance and minimize false casting.

See another article I have posted on that explains the double haul in detail.

Weight flies such as nymphs and streamers must have the weight necessary to get down to the the depth where the fish are holding. It is a safe bet that 90% of the time, fish are feeding near the bottom of the stream. You will catch more and bigger fish using weighted flies. The weight can be incorporated into the fly by wrapping lead wire around the hook and the tying the fly a usual. an alternate method is to tie the fly without weight and adding a split shot of the appropriate size about 6″ above the fly on the tippet.

I like the split shot method because it allows the weight to tick along the bottom and the fly to float a few inches above it. You will also get fewer hang-ups on debris on the bottom. You will lose flies fishing weight flies on or near the bottom, but if you’re not losing some flies, you will not catch as many fish.

I love seeing a trout take a dry fly. It is the ultimate in fly fishing, but you’ll find that when fish are not actively feeding on top, you’ll take more and bigger trout on weighted nymphs and streamers.

Weighted flies require specific casting skills that are different from dry fly casting, but it is well worth the effort to develop these skills.

“Chuck and duck” is definitely worth the risk.

Searching for Cheap Flights Online

Searching for inexpensive flights online could prove to be a difficult experience for most people out there because you are going to encounter hundreds of websites that offer discounts on airfare. Many of these websites also offer cheap international ticket rates. You need to know that official international airfares are governed by IATA (International Air Transport Association) and it does not allow direct discounting of airfare. But there is a way of purchasing cheap tickets through consolidators and wholesalers. So lets find out how exactly you can find cheap flights online.

Many low cost carriers are not full IATA members. So they can lower their airfare whenever they want and offer discount packages to their customers. These local companies have set up their websites that not only help to find you cheap flights but also hotel reservations and car rentals. Some airlines also have student discount offers listed on their websites. Some search engines display a list of travel agencies that meet your itinerary criteria. You can then find the best of these sites and book reservations with their supplier. You will be able to find national as well as international travel agencies this way by searching on the Internet.

Airfare Watchdog is an online portal where you can learn about special deals and offers and much more information about other travel arrangements. The address is: Similarly there are other sites that help you find local and international flight rates in particular seasons and useful information. or are also two such portals.

Consolidators are sold tickets at very low costs. You can find any air travel consolidator in your area and find out about their pricing structure and other facilities they have to offer. Consolidators allow travelers to compare prices of different travel agencies and also help them in choosing the best time of flight. There are three types of air travel consolidators: destination specialists, wholesale consolidators and online travel consolidators. Destination specialists are able to draw discounts depending on a particular destination. Wholesale consolidators do not sell tickets directly but you can find out more about multi-stop specialists who come under this category. They might be able to help you out in finding cheaper travel agencies.

Online travel consolidators are the best way of finding the cheapest flights, national or international. They might not be the best in providing other services but when it comes to pricing, thats where they specialize. You will find a lot of online agencies like that, such as Travelocity, Skyscanner, Cheap Flights, Expedia, STA Travel and many more. Expedia and Travelocity are two of the most popular online travel agencies. They both offer special flight prices with many airlines all around the world. Consolidator fares can save you up to 70-80% of your airfare. Although they are the best to go around when finding cheap flights, many people still like to consider buying direct airline tickets because they are more reliable and offer more services than the consolidators.

Choosing the right time for booking your flights is also important. Sometimes the best deals are offered at the last minute of reservations. If you are traveling alone you might want to wait until the day of your departure. However, booking in advance is always safer and more reliable and you never know when your luck might take a turn and the airline might offer you tickets at a discount rate when you purchase them. Again, there are online travel agencies that offer discounts if your book in advance. A little search here and there will teach you how this system works. Also get in touch with travel agents to find out more about the advantages and disadvantages of early and late reservations.

Cheap Flights Guide

General information on low cost airlines

Low cost airlines and their fares deeply changed the flight sector. A low cost (or no frills, or low fares) is an airline company that offers flights at very competitive prices (Cheap Flights) by not offering or by selling most of passenger services (like on-board meals, seats bookings, etc.). Cheap flights were born in USA in 1971 with Southwest Airlines, and started spreading in Europe at the beginning of the ’90s with Ireland’s Ryanair.

Statistics and history in brief

To point out the strong growth of low cost flights we will show a few stats: in 1994 about 3 million passengers flew low cost, most of them with Ryanair, and in 1995 they reached 17,5 million.

In 1995 British Airways founded their cheap flights division named Go, operating from London Stanstead airport in 1998. The same year Go started operating form London Luton as well. In the year 2000, Go was sold to with an operational loss of over 21 million Pounds. In 2000 KLM also entered the low cost world with Buzz, which was bought over by Ryanair in 2003 with very high losses. Currently and Ryanair are among the most successful European low cost airlines, and operate over several hundred routes.

Today’s market situation sees a strong and constant growth of the cheap flights sector, new routes being opened every day by all main airlines, In the future a strong growth of low cost companies it is foreseen also in the long range flights segments.

Why low cost flights are such

Low cost airlines are very flexible and efficient organizations with a cost structure that is very different from the one of traditional airlines. Cutting many costs allows them to offer very competitive prices.

Costs are optimized mainly in the following areas:

– Tickets sales are direct, Internet being the main channel. By shortening the intermediation chain, costs can be deeply reduced.

– Smaller and cheaper airports are used, that are also less jammed by traffic.

– On-board services and crews. No meals are served. Fewer crew members are used, and airplanes need less cleaning.

– Full usage of aircraft capacity. Airplanes always fly full charge and fly more often to amortize costs. They have faster load/download times (25/35 minutes vs. 2 hours of traditional companies).

– Newer and all equal aircraft. Low cost companies fleets are made all of the same make of planes, all new ones and easy to service, in order to have them all at maximum efficiency.

Characteristics of low cost companies

To operate cheap flights, airlines must have specific characteristics to allow them to keep prices as low as possible. The basic ones are:

– A single passenger class, with free choice of the seating place.

– A single airplane make (in order to optimize service costs), such as Airbus A320s or Boeing 737s (for instance: Ryanair uses Boeing 737 series, EasyJet favors both Boeing 737s and Airbus A319s).

– Airplanes have more seats (for instance, Lufthansa’s Boeing 737s carry 132 passengers, EasyJet’s ones carry 148).

– Lower weight allowance for both hand carried and stored luggage.

– No free meals or beverages are served on board, but they are available to buy.

– Crew members fulfill multiple tasks (mainly stewardesses and stewards).

– Intensive use of airfleets. For instance, EasyJet flies an average of 10.7 hours a day, while British Airways flies 7.1 hours. Airport stops are shorter (with a faster turnover, usually 25 minutes between flights), and flights are shorter too.

– Connections are made using convenient secondary airfields, often far away from town centers, without slot restrictions, little air traffic and lower airstrip fares.

– Straight peer-to-peer connections without luggage transfers to other coincident flights (separate check-in and check-out), no coordinate flight plans with other airlines.

– Expenditure savings trough direct ticket sales, especially trough the Internet and outsourced call centers, automated check-ins and, occasionally service fees.

– Certain offers (as low as 0.99?) are only valid for in-advance bookings or are limited offers, for a relatively low number of seats.

– Lean management (savings on staff). For instance, Germanwings in Cologne employs no more than 50 people.

It isn’t easy to be low cost: flops

There were new low cost companies that flew only a few months, or even only a few days, like Ireland’s JetGreen Airways, that stopped all activities in May 2004 after only one week without paying back about 40.000 already sold tickets.

– V Bird flew from October 23, 2003 to October 8, 2004 from Düsseldorf.

– VolareWeb, low cost daughter of Italy’s Volare went bankrupt on November 23, 2004. On October 30, 2004 they stopped at once their flights between Germany and Italy. In June 2005 they started to fly again, mainly to domestic destinations and a few European ones.

Several more or less known flops were: Minerva, Gandalf, Azzurra, Air Sicilia, ItalAir, Air Libertè.

When to book

It is usually better to book your cheap flights in large advance, at least 15 days before leaving. Better offers are for departures from Mondays to Thursdays: Better to avoid leaving on week ends. Always buy return tickets and be ready to take off at unusual times (early mornings or late evenings).

Canceling or modifying bookings

Before booking read thoroughly the company’s regulations about cancelling or modifying bookings! Usually cheap flights tickets not used on the booked flight are not payed back as recession rights for long distance travel do not apply to this kind of sales. About changing departure dates, every company have different regulations, which you better always check on the company’s site. Usually changing dates is not convenient. It is better to loose your old ticket and buy a new one.

How to pay

To shorten intermediation chains, thus offering competitive prices, low cost airlines use favor Internet and call canters (these may apply a small overcharge). Therefore be ready to pay via credit card (payments are secure, to verify be sure that Internet addresses change form http: to https:).

Cheap Flights Confirmation and check in

If you book on line, you will receive a confirmation mail at the e-mail address you specified. For telephone bookings at a call center, you will receive confirmation via fax, e-mail or, eventually by regular mail. In the last case, certain companies ask for a small overcharge if sending via messenger mail. If you are e-booking, that means if you buy your ticker on line, you receive confirmation via e-mail. It is enough to print it out and to show it at the booking counter at the airport.

Secure on line payments

On line payments are preferred by low cost airlines. To guarantee discretion in data transfer on the web, credit cards use the most advanced SSL (Secure Socket Layer) technology. When paying, if your browser uses SSL you just select Protected Mode and your data will be protected. If the browser has limitations, you can use Unprotected Mode. We recommend to get hold of the latest version to be able to carry out without problems all transactions.

Watch out for taxes and extras

Unfortunately, in offers of may low cost airlines there is a not yet regulated very bad habit of give only a partial price, not including overcharges and extras. So don’t be fooled by offers at 0.01 cents, always calculate global prices including taxes, overcharges and fuel costs. Sometimes there are huge differences in price.

Get organized for transportation

Low cost companies usually fly from secondary airfields that can be very far from final destinations (there are almost 70 miles from Stanstead to London), so make sure you know your way out (costs, timings and transportation time) and get organized to reach your destination.

Your luggage

Luggage transport is another point to pay attention to when flying low cost to avoid spending more on extra allowances than on tickets. Extra payload is usually very expensive and companies are very strict about it. So pay extreme attention to luggage overweight regulations and “weigh well” your suitcases.

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The best fishing flies

Every one has a favorite fly for trout. It is usually the first fly that you used successfully. In my case, it was the Elk Hair Caddis. It is a very good dry fly and one of the best all around flies for searching and it floats extremely well.

Good flies are successful because they have certain “triggering” characteristics. They may or may not look like a familiar insect. Even if they are abstract and don’t look like any insect that you have ever seen, there is usually one or more attributes that are attractive to the fish. That may be the legs, wings or just the overall profile of the fly.

There are several classes of flies: dry flies, emergers, wet flies, nymphs, streamers and terrestrials. Each one imitates certain insects at a certain stage of their life cycle.

Most of the insects that flies imitate are aquatic insects. These include: may flies, caddis flies and stone flies. At times the fly fisherman will be successful with dragonfly, cranefly or damselflies.

In late summer and fall, terrestrials such as grasshoppers, beetles, ants and inchworms are more abundant and are good selections to imitate. After a rain, many terrestrials was into the stream and it is a good time to use a fly in that class. Likewise, San Juan worms are a good choice after a rain and sometimes even when it’s dry. Some worms are aquatic and therefore may be a good choice any time.

A good selection of flies for the beginning fly fisherman could include the following flies.

Dry flies – Elk Hair Caddis, Adams, Royal Wulff and Stimulator (sizes 12 to 20).

Emergers – This class of fly can include any fly that floats low in the surface film. You can modify a dry fly by clipping the bottom hackle so that it floats low and gives a good profile to the fish viewing it from below. Small emergers can be tied with closed cell foam at the head and the body actually suspends below the surface film with the hear floating above the surface (sizes 12 to 20).

Wet flies – Partridge and Orange, Quill Gordon, Renegade and Woolly Worm (sizes 10 to 18).

Nymphs – Gold Ribbed Hare’s Ear, Pheasant Tail, Prince and Zug Bug (sizes 10 to 18).

Streamers – Mickey Finn, Muddler Minnow and Woolly Bugger (sizes 4 to 12).

Terrestrials – Dave’s Hopper, Joe’s Hopper, assorted ant patterns, foam beetles and inchworm imitations (sizes 8 to 16).

With a selection of these patterns in the recommended sizes and an assortment of colors, you will be armed to catch trout under most any conditions, in any location.

How to make an inexpensive fly book

It isn’t uncommon for fly fishermen to have 30 or 40 flies of different sorts and sizes. This can create quite a problem. Keeping them loose in a tackle box or creel is a great way to have an unwieldy mess that can make it difficult to find the fly you want, and almost invariably results in punctures from the sharp hooks. There is a way around this though, use a fly book.

When we talk about fly books, we aren’t talking about books about fly-fishing or on how to tie flies. In fact, we aren’t talking about printed material at all. A fly book is simply a place to store fishing flies so they can easily be selected, while helping to protect the flies from damage.

Fly books can be purchased, and many of the bought variety do a fair job, whether they are a magnetic sort or other construction. However, a good durable fly book can be created without much effort or expense, and this can last for years.

To make a fly book, you need:

1 8 inch x 8 inch square of fake wool

1 8 inch x 9 inch rectangle of leather (soft leather works best)

1 or 2 clothing snaps

Heavy thread

Leather needles

A leather punch (a knife can be used, but it makes the creation of the fly book more difficult)

Step 1: Punch or cut a hole in the leather to contain the male side of the clothing snap(s), and crimp the snap into place. The placement should be 1/4 to 1/2 inch in from the edge, along one of the eight-inch sides of the leather.

Step 2: Turn the leather over, and then sew the fake wool to the leather. It should be sewn all the way around, but flush on three sides so there will be a one-inch overlap of leather.

Step 3: Fold the material in half so the fake wool is on the inside, fold the one inch flap of leather over, and punch a hole or holes for the female ends of the snap so they can snap tight in the male ends. Insert those or that side of the snap. This will hold the book together to protect the flies and prevent them from coming free accidentally.

You should now have a completed fly book, eight inches long and four inches wide, to hold your flies. To attach the flies, simply unsnap the book and slip the hook into the fake wool, then snap it closed again. The fake wool holds the hook in place, yet you can easily remove it by just pulling on the hook.

A fly book made in this way isn’t very expensive, and the leather causes it to last for a long time. Better still, you can arrange your flies according to type and size. This means that by just opening the book, you (or the fly fisherman in your family, if you are making this as a gift) can easily find just the fly that is desired. Also, it means that simply opening the book and taking a quick glance, it is easy to see which flies need to be purchased or tied.

A fly book of this size is capable of holding a surprising number of flies, and since the fake wool is soft, it protects the fur and feathers the fly was tied from. At the same time, the leather protects the fly from the elements.

If you are a fly fisherman and have never used a fly book, you will quickly start to wonder why it took so long to try it. If you make your own book and see how easy it is, you may wonder even more. A fly book is something every fly fisherman can use, and unlike many other things they may have for fly-fishing, it is inexpensive, especially if it is home made. This leads to less time spent finding the fly you want, and more time spent in catching the fish.

Are Cheap Flights Becoming an Endangered Species?

A few years ago back when budget airlines like EasyJet and RyanAir were first on the scene we were all promised ridiculously cheap flights to all sorts of destinations from European city breaks to viable alternatives to ferries to Ireland. There seemed to be a growing market of flights that appeared to operate at a price lower than the cost to the airline itself.

This was all well and good especially after other destinations received discount flights like New York and even locations like India and Turkey. The problem is that in the past few years most people haven’t noticed the price of these flights has managed to creep up and now the moniker of cheap flights seems false.

Holidays site Travelocity has found that prices have raised by roughly 7 percent compared to last years prices, so why has this happened? Well the price has risen due to a number of different factors and depending on which airline you select you may have to pay considerably more on top of your flight cost.

One common raise has been the rise of fuel tax, with the airline industry receiving a lot of flak in the battle to make our lives “greener” air travel is said to produce one of the most destructive gases to our environment (as well as bovine flatulence, but that’s another matter) and so fuel surcharges has been increased to discourage people from taking flights.

Some people think that this initiative is a direct response to the cheap flights industry as many more people flew to destinations once cheap flights were readily available. Other than this cause there are a number of trivial extra charges such as aisle seats, the boxed lunches and with some airlines if you have more than one item of baggage checked.

So are cheap flights lost to the ether, an afterthought in the history of air travel? Well not necessarily there are a few ways in which you can help reduce the cost of your flights, such as booking as early as possible. A leading travel agent explained that flight prices gradually rise in the lead up to the summer holiday period and are at their most expensive during the period of March to September. They also advised that December is the optimal time to book your flights as this is when they are at their cheapest.

Apart from booking good and early there is a number of air fares monitoring websites that can track multiple flights companies so you can hunt down the cheapest flight possible and pounce on them when the timing’s right